Asafeotida plant species
There are other species of Ferula in Iran that are also Asafoetida is also taken from them and are known as independent species or varieties of one species, such as: F.foetida Regel. , F.alliacea Boiss. , F.Kuma and F.Kurdica Pol.
– The species F.foetida has been identified in Baluchistan, Khorasan, Shahroud, Bastam, Miami, Damghan and Sabzevar and is part of the group that gives the famous Khorasan Manten Asafoetida.
– F.alliacea species that has been identified in Khorasan and Kerman.
– The species F.Kurdica is abundant in the mountains of Savojbolagh and Hamedan and in West Azerbaijan. Its resin is about the size of a bean and gives the sharp smell of Baume de peru, meaning it has a pungent smell of lemon. This plant is called “Biveza” locally.
– F. Kuma species, which is abundant in Sershiv pastures, Saqez of Kurdistan, Oramanat heights, Barsan and Pokideh mountains of Kurdistan, as well as in Kohkiluyeh and Lorestan, is a rich fodder and is a good fodder for fattening horses and cows. Its local names are “Kama” and “Viye”.
In terms of plant shape, the above species are very similar to each other but their heights are different. In addition, in some species, the color of the flower is white and the color of the fruit, when ripe, is white, round and broad, like a coin, and fragrant. This latter type, which is called “Biveza”, is mentioned in traditional medicine books as “Anjadan Tayeb” or “white Anjadan”.
Types of Asafoetida
resin or leachate that comes out of the lower stem of the plant during the summer, either naturally or by pruning the roots or the lower stem or cutting the stem of productive plants, is called “Asafoetida”, which due to its taste and types of harvesting, are diffrent:
Types of Asafoetida in terms of taste
Asafoetida generally has an astringent taste. However, depending on the plant species, there are two different flavors:
- Sweet Asafoetida: This resin is obtained from a species of Asafoetida plants, which is called “White Anjudan” or “Anjudan Tayeb” or “Koleh Par” and is derived from that sweet Asafoetida or Halit Tayeb. This species grows mostly around Kerman, Yazd, Razavi and southern Khorasan, Biabank, Abadeh and the suburbs of Taft, Semirom and Tabas.
- Bitter Asafoetida: Another type of this resin is called “Black Anjudan”, “Anjudan Manten”, “Komat”, “Cama” and “Asafoetida Cama”, from a “stinking Asafoetida” or “halitit manten” is taken. This species is mostly grown in Baluchistan, Lorestan, Fars, Kohkiluyeh and Boyer-Ahmad.
Types of Asafoetida in terms of harvest quality
Bitter and sweet Asafoetidas due to types of harvesting are offered in the market in two forms of tears and mass:
- Tear Asafoetida: It is the best and rarest type of Asafoetida that is the first leachate harvest without plant residues, this resin comes out of the plant stem in small amounts in the normal state; Very clean, without dirt and debris, its external color is reddish yellow or brown, smooth and transparent, and its cross-sectional color will be yellowish white, which oxidizes and darkens rapidly in the presence of air. This resin retains its softness for a while and is about the size of a hazelnut, or slightly larger or smaller, or the size of a pea. In this type of resin, there is up to 15% of essence.
- Mass of Asafoetida: The common type of Asafoetida that is offered in the market is called a mass that is removed from the wound by razor and is collected with special spatulas. It is available in different colors of yellow, red, brown and gray. The firmness of this type of Asafoetida is more than the tear type and it is more impure than it. Because it is carefully collected and mixed with soil, debris and roots and is substandard.