Introduction of Asafoetida plant
- Persian: Asafoetida- Asafoetida
- English: Stingingassa “Asafetida”
- Latin: Ferula assafoetida
- Persian: Asafoetida- Asafoetida
- Arabic: The gum of the anus
- France: Asa foetida
- Other names: Asafoetida Herati, Angejd, Angjeh, Satan feces, kole par and cama In some parts of Iran, including Isfahan, it is locally called “Angosht Kandeh”. In the books of traditional medicine, the names “Haltit”, “Haltit Manten”, “Haltit Tayeb” and “resin of Al-Anjdan” are mentioned.
Asafoetida is one of the important medicinal plants of Umbelliferae; Perennial herb, its roots are slightly thick and fleshy, its leaves are very cut and dusty. Asafoetida plant has no visible stem in the first few years of its life and its leaves are wide on the ground, which locals are known as “kamah” and “angze kamah”. But after a few years, hollow and fleshy stems grow that reach up to 2 meters in height. The skin color of the flowering stem is tan-yellow, which enters the flowering stage at the age of 6-7 years, and after producing flowers and seeds, the plant’s root store is finished and completely destroyed. The flowers of Asafoetida plant appear yellow and umbrella-shaped at the end of the stem. Angoze fruit has two dark brown and black seeds, slightly broad oval and very smelly. The growth phase of Asafoetida begins in late winter and continues until mid-July, then the dormancy period of immature plants begins and lasts until the spring of next year. Plant life is maintained by underground organs in roots and terminal buds. Reproduction of this plant is done only through seeds. This mountain plant grows in barren lands, dry sandy and calcareous areas of warm regions with an average rainfall of 90-150 mm per year. The slope of most Asafoetida areas is 30 to 60%. Its main origin is mentioned in the steppes of Iran and Afghanistan. In Iran, it grows in different regions of Khorasan, Baluchistan and different regions of southern Iran, such as Kerman, Dasht-e Murghab, Abadeh, Nain and those areas.
For the first time in 1687 AD, a person named Kamfar identified Asafoetida in Fars Larestan and exploited it by the traditional razor method (cross section).
Dr. Schlimer’s notes state that the Herati Asafoetida or asa foetida, as its name implies, was formerly cultivated in a large area in Herat, and at the same time in Iran it grows in the areas of Abadeh, Dasht-e Murghab, Nain Kerman, and Asafoetida It is taken from it. Herat rye production was mostly taken to India, and especially the millions of vegetarian people in India who suffered from bloating often used it to eliminate bloating. During the Indian Revolution and the conflict with the United Kingdom, which disrupted the general transportation of India, the import of Asafoetida from Herat was cut off, and in the years 1857-58, about 50-60 tons of Asafoetida was transported through Iran, from Bandar Abbas and Bushehr to India. Schliemer quotes Camphor about produced of asfeotida that is broadly harvested up to 200-300 years ago, ie up to 1000-11000 AH in southern Iran , But because most of the plant was harvested from the ground while harvesting, the productive plant of Asafoetida has been gradually destroyed and it has not been seen in those areas for many years. While quoting the above history, Dr. Schlimer mentions the anti-flatulence property of Asafoetida in his notes.